某学姐

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Android消息循环机制源码分析

2016-03-31 | Comments

概述

Android的不懂Handler消息循环机制,都不好意思说自己是Android工程师。面试的时候一般也都会问这个知识点,但是我相信大多数码农肯定是没有看过相关源码的,顶多也就是网上搜搜,看看别人的文章介绍。学姐不想把那个万能的关系图拿出来讨论。

学姐先从我们平时的使用方法引出这个机制,再结合源码进行分析。

我们平时使用是这样的:

    //1. 主线程
    Handler handler = new MyHandler();

    //2. 非主线程
    HandlerThread handlerThread = new HandlerThread("handlerThread");
    handlerThread.start();
    Handler handler = new Handler(handlerThread.getLooper());

    //发送消息
    handler.sendMessage(msg);
    
    //接收消息
    static class MyHandler extends Handler {
        //对于非主线程处理消息需要传Looper,主线程有默认的sMainLooper
        public MyHandler(Looper looper) {
            super(looper);
        }

        @Override
        public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
            super.handleMessage(msg);
        }
    }

那么为什么初始化的时候,我们执行了1或2,后面只需要sendMessage就可处理任务了呢?学姐这里以非主线程为例进行介绍,handlerThread.start()的时候,实际上创建了一个用于消息循环的Looper和消息队列MessageQueue,同时启动了消息循环,并将这个循环传给Handler,这个循环会从MessageQueue中依次取任务出来执行。用户若要执行某项任务,只需要调用handler.sendMessage即可,这里做的事情是将消息添加到MessaeQueue中。对于主线程也类似,只是主线程sMainThreadsMainLooper不需要我们主动去创建,程序启动的时候Application就创建好了,我们只需要创建Handler即可。

我们这里提到了几个概念:

HandlerThread 支持消息循环的线程

Handler 消息处理器

Looper 消息循环对象

MessageQueue 消息队列

Message 消息体

对应关系是:一对多,即(一个)HandlerThread、Looper、MessageQueue -> (多个)Handler、Message

源码解析

1. Looper

(1)创建消息循环

prepare()用于创建Looper消息循环对象。Looper对象通过一个成员变量ThreadLocal进行保存。

(2)获取消息循环对象

myLooper()用于获取当前消息循环对象。Looper对象从成员变量ThreadLocal中获取。

(3)开始消息循环

loop()开始消息循环。循环过程如下:

每次从消息队列MessageQueue中取出一个Message

使用Message对应的Handler处理Message

已处理的Message加到本地消息池,循环复用

循环以上步骤,若没有消息表明消息队列停止,退出循环

public static void prepare() {
    prepare(true);
}

private static void prepare(boolean quitAllowed) {
    if (sThreadLocal.get() != null) {
        throw new RuntimeException("Only one Looper may be created per thread");
    }
    sThreadLocal.set(new Looper(quitAllowed));
}

public static Looper myLooper() {
    return sThreadLocal.get();
}

public static void loop() {
    final Looper me = myLooper();
    if (me == null) {
        throw new RuntimeException("No Looper; Looper.prepare() wasn't called on this thread.");
    }
    final MessageQueue queue = me.mQueue;

    // Make sure the identity of this thread is that of the local process,
    // and keep track of what that identity token actually is.
    Binder.clearCallingIdentity();
    final long ident = Binder.clearCallingIdentity();

    for (;;) {
        Message msg = queue.next(); // might block
        if (msg == null) {
            // No message indicates that the message queue is quitting.
            return;
        }

        // This must be in a local variable, in case a UI event sets the logger
        Printer logging = me.mLogging;
        if (logging != null) {
            logging.println(">>>>> Dispatching to " + msg.target + " " +
                    msg.callback + ": " + msg.what);
        }

        msg.target.dispatchMessage(msg);

        if (logging != null) {
            logging.println("<<<<< Finished to " + msg.target + " " + msg.callback);
        }

        // Make sure that during the course of dispatching the
        // identity of the thread wasn't corrupted.
        final long newIdent = Binder.clearCallingIdentity();
        if (ident != newIdent) {
            Log.wtf(TAG, "Thread identity changed from 0x"
                    + Long.toHexString(ident) + " to 0x"
                    + Long.toHexString(newIdent) + " while dispatching to "
                    + msg.target.getClass().getName() + " "
                    + msg.callback + " what=" + msg.what);
        }

        msg.recycleUnchecked();
    }
}

2. Handler

(1)发送消息

Handler支持2种消息类型,即RunnableMessage。因此发送消息提供了post(Runnable r)sendMessage(Message msg)两个方法。从下面源码可以看出Runnable赋值给了Messagecallback,最终也是封装成Message对象对象。学姐个人认为外部调用不统一使用Message,应该是兼容Java的线程任务,学姐认为这种思想也可以借鉴到平常开发过程中。发送的消息都会入队到MessageQueue队列中。

(2)处理消息

Looper循环过程的时候,是通过dispatchMessage(Message msg)对消息进行处理。处理过程:先看是否是Runnable对象,如果是则调用handleCallback(msg)进行处理,最终调到Runnable.run()方法执行线程;如果不是Runnable对象,再看外部是否传入了Callback处理机制,若有则使用外部Callback进行处理;若既不是Runnable对象也没有外部Callback,则调用handleMessage(msg),这个也是我们开发过程中最常覆写的方法了。

(3)移除消息

removeCallbacksAndMessages(),移除消息其实也是从MessageQueue中将Message对象移除掉。

public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
}
    
public void dispatchMessage(Message msg) {
    if (msg.callback != null) {
        handleCallback(msg);
    } else {
        if (mCallback != null) {
            if (mCallback.handleMessage(msg)) {
                return;
            }
        }
        handleMessage(msg);
    }
}

private static void handleCallback(Message message) {
    message.callback.run();
}

public final Message obtainMessage()
{
    return Message.obtain(this);
}

public final boolean post(Runnable r)
{
   return  sendMessageDelayed(getPostMessage(r), 0);
}

public final boolean sendMessage(Message msg)
{
    return sendMessageDelayed(msg, 0);
}

private static Message getPostMessage(Runnable r) {
    Message m = Message.obtain();
    m.callback = r;
    return m;
}

public final boolean sendMessageDelayed(Message msg, long delayMillis)
{
    if (delayMillis < 0) {
        delayMillis = 0;
    }
    return sendMessageAtTime(msg, SystemClock.uptimeMillis() + delayMillis);
}

public boolean sendMessageAtTime(Message msg, long uptimeMillis) {
    MessageQueue queue = mQueue;
    if (queue == null) {
        RuntimeException e = new RuntimeException(
                this + " sendMessageAtTime() called with no mQueue");
        Log.w("Looper", e.getMessage(), e);
        return false;
    }
    return enqueueMessage(queue, msg, uptimeMillis);
}

private boolean enqueueMessage(MessageQueue queue, Message msg, long uptimeMillis) {
    msg.target = this;
    if (mAsynchronous) {
        msg.setAsynchronous(true);
    }
    return queue.enqueueMessage(msg, uptimeMillis);
}

public final void removeCallbacksAndMessages(Object token) {
    mQueue.removeCallbacksAndMessages(this, token);
}

3. MessageQueue

(1)消息入队

消息入队方法enqueueMessage(Message msg, long when)。其处理过程如下:

待入队的Message标记为InUse,when赋值

若消息链表mMessages为空为空,或待入队Message执行时间小于mMessage链表头,则待入队Message添加到链表头

若不符合以上条件,则轮询链表,根据when从低到高的顺序,插入链表合适位置

(2)消息轮询

next()依次从MessageQueue中取出Message

(3)移除消息

removeMessages()可以移除消息,做的事情实际上就是将消息从链表移除,同时将移除的消息添加到消息池,提供循环复用。

boolean enqueueMessage(Message msg, long when) {
    if (msg.target == null) {
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Message must have a target.");
    }
    if (msg.isInUse()) {
        throw new IllegalStateException(msg + " This message is already in use.");
    }

    synchronized (this) {
        if (mQuitting) {
            IllegalStateException e = new IllegalStateException(
                    msg.target + " sending message to a Handler on a dead thread");
            Log.w("MessageQueue", e.getMessage(), e);
            msg.recycle();
            return false;
        }

        msg.markInUse();
        msg.when = when;
        Message p = mMessages;
        boolean needWake;
        if (p == null || when == 0 || when < p.when) {
            // New head, wake up the event queue if blocked.
            msg.next = p;
            mMessages = msg;
            needWake = mBlocked;
        } else {
            // Inserted within the middle of the queue.  Usually we don't have to wake
            // up the event queue unless there is a barrier at the head of the queue
            // and the message is the earliest asynchronous message in the queue.
            needWake = mBlocked && p.target == null && msg.isAsynchronous();
            Message prev;
            for (;;) {
                prev = p;
                p = p.next;
                if (p == null || when < p.when) {
                    break;
                }
                if (needWake && p.isAsynchronous()) {
                    needWake = false;
                }
            }
            msg.next = p; // invariant: p == prev.next
            prev.next = msg;
        }

        // We can assume mPtr != 0 because mQuitting is false.
        if (needWake) {
            nativeWake(mPtr);
        }
    }
    return true;
}

Message next() {
    // Return here if the message loop has already quit and been disposed.
    // This can happen if the application tries to restart a looper after quit
    // which is not supported.
    final long ptr = mPtr;
    if (ptr == 0) {
        return null;
    }

    int pendingIdleHandlerCount = -1; // -1 only during first iteration
    int nextPollTimeoutMillis = 0;
    for (;;) {
        if (nextPollTimeoutMillis != 0) {
            Binder.flushPendingCommands();
        }

        nativePollOnce(ptr, nextPollTimeoutMillis);

        synchronized (this) {
            // Try to retrieve the next message.  Return if found.
            final long now = SystemClock.uptimeMillis();
            Message prevMsg = null;
            Message msg = mMessages;
            if (msg != null && msg.target == null) {
                // Stalled by a barrier.  Find the next asynchronous message in the queue.
                do {
                    prevMsg = msg;
                    msg = msg.next;
                } while (msg != null && !msg.isAsynchronous());
            }
            if (msg != null) {
                if (now < msg.when) {
                    // Next message is not ready.  Set a timeout to wake up when it is ready.
                    nextPollTimeoutMillis = (int) Math.min(msg.when - now, Integer.MAX_VALUE);
                } else {
                    // Got a message.
                    mBlocked = false;
                    if (prevMsg != null) {
                        prevMsg.next = msg.next;
                    } else {
                        mMessages = msg.next;
                    }
                    msg.next = null;
                    if (false) Log.v("MessageQueue", "Returning message: " + msg);
                    return msg;
                }
            } else {
                // No more messages.
                nextPollTimeoutMillis = -1;
            }

            // Process the quit message now that all pending messages have been handled.
            if (mQuitting) {
                dispose();
                return null;
            }

            // If first time idle, then get the number of idlers to run.
            // Idle handles only run if the queue is empty or if the first message
            // in the queue (possibly a barrier) is due to be handled in the future.
            if (pendingIdleHandlerCount < 0
                    && (mMessages == null || now < mMessages.when)) {
                pendingIdleHandlerCount = mIdleHandlers.size();
            }
            if (pendingIdleHandlerCount <= 0) {
                // No idle handlers to run.  Loop and wait some more.
                mBlocked = true;
                continue;
            }

            if (mPendingIdleHandlers == null) {
                mPendingIdleHandlers = new IdleHandler[Math.max(pendingIdleHandlerCount, 4)];
            }
            mPendingIdleHandlers = mIdleHandlers.toArray(mPendingIdleHandlers);
        }

        // Run the idle handlers.
        // We only ever reach this code block during the first iteration.
        for (int i = 0; i < pendingIdleHandlerCount; i++) {
            final IdleHandler idler = mPendingIdleHandlers[i];
            mPendingIdleHandlers[i] = null; // release the reference to the handler

            boolean keep = false;
            try {
                keep = idler.queueIdle();
            } catch (Throwable t) {
                Log.wtf("MessageQueue", "IdleHandler threw exception", t);
            }

            if (!keep) {
                synchronized (this) {
                    mIdleHandlers.remove(idler);
                }
            }
        }

        // Reset the idle handler count to 0 so we do not run them again.
        pendingIdleHandlerCount = 0;

        // While calling an idle handler, a new message could have been delivered
        // so go back and look again for a pending message without waiting.
        nextPollTimeoutMillis = 0;
    }
}

void removeMessages(Handler h, int what, Object object) {
    if (h == null) {
        return;
    }

    synchronized (this) {
        Message p = mMessages;

        // Remove all messages at front.
        while (p != null && p.target == h && p.what == what
               && (object == null || p.obj == object)) {
            Message n = p.next;
            mMessages = n;
            p.recycleUnchecked();
            p = n;
        }

        // Remove all messages after front.
        while (p != null) {
            Message n = p.next;
            if (n != null) {
                if (n.target == h && n.what == what
                    && (object == null || n.obj == object)) {
                    Message nn = n.next;
                    n.recycleUnchecked();
                    p.next = nn;
                    continue;
                }
            }
            p = n;
        }
    }
}

4. Message

(1)消息创建

Message.obtain()创建消息。若消息池链表sPool不为空,则从sPool中获取第一个,flags标记为UnInUse,同时从sPool中移除,sPoolSize减1;若消息池链表sPool为空,则new Message()

(2)消息释放

recycle()将消息释放,从内部实现recycleUnchecked()可知,将flags标记为InUse,其他各种状态清零,同时将Message添加到sPool,且sPoolSize加1

/**
 * Return a new Message instance from the global pool. Allows us to
 * avoid allocating new objects in many cases.
 */
public static Message obtain() {
    synchronized (sPoolSync) {
        if (sPool != null) {
            Message m = sPool;
            sPool = m.next;
            m.next = null;
            m.flags = 0; // clear in-use flag
            sPoolSize--;
            return m;
        }
    }
    return new Message();
}

/**
 * Return a Message instance to the global pool.
 * <p>
 * You MUST NOT touch the Message after calling this function because it has
 * effectively been freed.  It is an error to recycle a message that is currently
 * enqueued or that is in the process of being delivered to a Handler.
 * </p>
 */
public void recycle() {
    if (isInUse()) {
        if (gCheckRecycle) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("This message cannot be recycled because it "
                    + "is still in use.");
        }
        return;
    }
    recycleUnchecked();
}

/**
 * Recycles a Message that may be in-use.
 * Used internally by the MessageQueue and Looper when disposing of queued Messages.
 */
void recycleUnchecked() {
    // Mark the message as in use while it remains in the recycled object pool.
    // Clear out all other details.
    flags = FLAG_IN_USE;
    what = 0;
    arg1 = 0;
    arg2 = 0;
    obj = null;
    replyTo = null;
    sendingUid = -1;
    when = 0;
    target = null;
    callback = null;
    data = null;

    synchronized (sPoolSync) {
        if (sPoolSize < MAX_POOL_SIZE) {
            next = sPool;
            sPool = this;
            sPoolSize++;
        }
    }
}

5. HandlerThread

由于Java中的Thread是没有消息循环机制的,run()方法执行完,线程则结束。HandlerThread通过使用Looper实现了消息循环,只要不主动调用HandlerThread或Looper的quit()方法,循环就是一直走下去。

public class HandlerThread extends Thread {
int mPriority;
int mTid = -1;
Looper mLooper;

public HandlerThread(String name) {
    super(name);
    mPriority = Process.THREAD_PRIORITY_DEFAULT;
}

@Override
public void run() {
    mTid = Process.myTid();
    Looper.prepare();
    synchronized (this) {
        mLooper = Looper.myLooper();
        notifyAll();
    }
    Process.setThreadPriority(mPriority);
    onLooperPrepared();
    Looper.loop();
    mTid = -1;
}

public Looper getLooper() {
    if (!isAlive()) {
        return null;
    }
    
    // If the thread has been started, wait until the looper has been created.
    synchronized (this) {
        while (isAlive() && mLooper == null) {
            try {
                wait();
            } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            }
        }
    }
    return mLooper;
}

public boolean quit() {
    Looper looper = getLooper();
    if (looper != null) {
        looper.quit();
        return true;
    }
    return false;
}
}

总结

  1. 关键类:HandlerThread、Handler、Looper、MessageQueue、Messaga

  2. MessageQueue数据结构,链表。

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